domingo, 30 de setembro de 2007

Birds May See Earth's Magnetic Fields

By Dave Mosher
26 September 2007

Birds can travel the world without any of the gizmos that humans depend on, and a new study suggests how: Our feathered friends might "see" Earth's magnetic field.

While other mechanisms are thought to help birds navigate, including magnetically sensitive cells within their beaks, their brain regions responsible for vision are in full gear during magnetic navigation, researchers said.

"If you look into the brain of a bird during magnetic compass orientation, only the visual system is highly active," said study co-author Henrik Mouritsen, a biologist at the University of Oldenburg in Germany, noting that most migratory birds do so at night. "Other regions of the brain are not, so birds could use vision to 'see' Earth's magnetism and orient themselves."

Mouritsen and his colleagues' findings are detailed online in a recent issue of the journal PLoS ONE.

Magnetic chemistry

The researchers previously discovered molecules called cryptochromes, which change their chemistry in the presence of a magnetic field, in the retinas of migratory birds' eyes.

"When light hits these molecules, their chemistry changes and magnetism can influence them," Mouritsen said. The molecules might then affect light-sensing cells in the retina to create images, which would help the brain navigate during flight, he added.

A direct connection between the specialized cells and the region of the bird's brain active during magnetic orientation, however, had never been shown before.

Mouritsen and his team recently found such connections between the cryptochrome-holding retinal cells and the "cluster N" region of migratory birds' brains, located in part of the brain responsible for vision.

"Cluster N is highly active during magnetic field orientation at night, when migratory birds fly," he said, explaining that non-migratory birds don't seem to use it during night flight. "We can't see what birds see, obviously, but they may pick up some sort of shading in their vision at night to act as a compass."

No smoking gun

Mouritsen noted that while the work is exciting, it isn't direct proof that they can actually "see" Earth's magnetism during migratory flights at night.

"If we could listen in on the neural connections between the retinal cells and cluster N, and show they actually send magnetically-influenced signals to the brain," Mouritsen said, "then that would be really compelling evidence that they can see it."

Even if migratory birds can see Earth's magnetic field, he noted, plenty of mysteries remain to explain their uncanny navigation.

"Birds also use the sun and stars to navigate, but we're not certain how," Mouritsen said. "How do they compute all of this information and end up with a direction to fly in? There are so many steps in this process we simply don't know about."


Universal ancient sacredness of Holly


One of the most striking features of Holly is it universal sacredness to all developed pre-Christian cultures throughout the world, especially with its properties for prophetic dreams, hallucinations and magic. It is arguably the most sacred plant of human history considering its association to hero, myth and ritual.

Throughout Europe holly was believed to repel evil, & this belief lingers to the modern day. An old tradition of bringing holy boughs into one's house in winter, as a place for good fairies to play, is echoed down to our own era, when holly wreaths are brought indoors for Christmas, to await the arrival of the winter elf king Santa.

It was long regarded as unlucky to leave these holly wreaths up after Twelfth Night, so it was consigned to the fireplace on New Year's Eve. Others felt that good luck could be obtained by keeping a sprig from a holly wreath that had been used as a Yuletide decoration within a church, hence the wreathes would be cut to pieces to divide among church members.

The Celts of the British Isles & Gaul believed the Holly King ruled over death & winter, whereas the Oak King ruled life & summer. This ancient (conceivably originally Druidic) belief was preserved into medieval times in mummers' plays, & has modernly been adapted to the Druidic revival & other pagan systems of faith. The Holly King was a warlike giant who bore a great wooden club made of a thick holly branch. He found his way into Arthurian Legend as the Green
Knight, who challenged Sir Gawain during a Yuletide feast, baring as his weapon "a solitary branch of holly."

In Scandinavian mythology the Holly belonged to Thor & Freya. Holly's association with Thor's lightning meant that it could protect people from being struck by bolts. Norsemen & Celts would plant a holly tree near their homes specifically to take lightning strikes & protect a house & its inhabitants. The crooked lines of the holly leaves probably gave rise to the association with lightning, as well as the fact that hollies do conduct lightning into the ground better than most trees, with the least injury to the tree.

So too Freya or Frigga had authority over weather, & if Thor was the lightning, Freya was the thunder. The Grimms' Fairy Tale of "Mother Holly" (or "Frau Holda") is a recollection of Frigga compounded with an even more ancient Earthmother named Hulta ("Elderberry") involved with a rich Mythology of the Elderberry Tree.

In the charming tale of Mother Holly, her troublemaking cat sets off all sorts of bad weather by getting into Mother Holly's things. He then eats Mother Holly's corn. When Mother Holly discovers the mischief the cat has done, she doesn't punish the cat, because the corn caused the kitty's stomach to rumble as with thunder, a sound that pleased her.

Although Mother Holly of the Grimms' tale is a winter hag or witch associated with the holly because it is a winter fruit-baring tree, she also had a maidenly spring & summer aspect, when she was associated with the Elderberry Tree which flowers in spring & fruits in summer. As Frau Holda, then, she is identifiable not just with Teutonic Frigga, but with the Scandinavian goddess Hulda or Hulta. Much of Freya's holly mythology at a more archaic level regarded Hulda's two aspects of maidenly life-giving (with the edible summerfruiting Elderberry) & crone death-bringing (with the poisonous winter-fruiting Holly).

In Shinto mythology the Japanese holly (I. crenata) held a similar position as that of the holly in Europe. When the Sun-goddess Amaterasu withdrew into her cavern & refused to come out, the erotic clown-goddess Uzume hung a sacred jewel & a sacred mirror in the branches of a holly, & began to dance about the black-fruited holly tree in a humorously sexy manner to attract the
attention of Amaterasu & draw her out of the cavern so that Spring would begin. A luck-charm is down to the present day sold in Japan, consisting of a glass ball etched with holly leaves, symbolic of Amaterasu's mirror, jewel, & tree.

As an aside, it cannot be coincidental that when Demeter withdrew into hiding & winter fell upon the land, it was a similar Clown-goddess, Baubo, who while dancing in an effort to cheer up Demeter, suddenly mooned the Goddess with her buttocks, on which a face had been painted, winning from Demeter her only laughter of the season.

In another Japanese legend, Prince Yamato, one of the greatest of the doomed heros of history & myth, was said to have done battle with a spear the handle of which was made of holly wood, a symbol of divine authority.

A New Years charm popular in Japan consists of a holly leaf & skewer. This represents the Buddhist monk-god Daikoku. Once when he was about to be attacked by an oni devil, the rat that dwelt with Daikoku as a friendly companion hurried into the garden to fetch the monk a holly branch, bringing it to him in the nick of time, since an oni devil will not go near holly. To this day, there lingers a rustic Japanese tradition of hanging a holly sprig on the door to
the house to keep away devils, not at all unlike numerous holly-related beliefs in Europe.

In the American southeast & southwest, yaupon holly (I. vomitoria) was used in mystic cultic practices, overimbibed to induce vomiting & hallucination as a purification ritual. Archeologists have found ritual shell-cups with the evaporated holly residue dating to 1,200 BCE. There are only intimations of what the yaupon holly myths within this ancient cult may have been, but it was sacred to the Cherokee & Creek at least into the 1930s.

In South America, the Guarada people tell the tale of the bearded god Pa-ishume who taught many things to mortals, including how to make the stimulating & health-giving mate beverage from the leaves of the Paraguay holly tree (I. paraguayensis).

Considering how widespread holly mythology is, the Romans may have independently regarded the holly as sacred, but it is more likely they coopted its ritualistic use from the Celts, hanging winter sprigs upon images of Saturn during winter's violently erotic Saturnalia.

The (Solstice) Yule Tree

Yule marks the longest night of the year -- the triumph of the dark half of the year. Night and darkness have reached their apex and the Wheel turns to restore balance. The dawn heralds the return of the sun, bringer of light, warmth, and growth. In the days following Yule, the sun’s power grows steadily, encroaching upon the night, pushing back the darkness.

The Yule tree, the Holy Tree (“Holly Tree”) (recognized in modern times as the “Christmas tree”) is an ancient symbol of life, fertility and vitality. In the ancient German Saxon culture, the Holly Tree, the Yule Tree just outside Marburg was considered the most sacred because it had been planted by a descendent of the cuileann (Holy ‘men’).

The Yule Tree (Holy Tree) itself was equivalent to Stonehenge to the ancient Germans in that the arrival of the Holy men represented the saving of the ancient hunter gatherer tribes from hell, cannibalism, human sacrifice and starvation to organized society. To them, it represented the start of the Earth and the source of all life.

On coming to the throne in 768, the Christian Emperor Charlemagne launched a vicious campaign of evangelism against the Saxons of Germany. The first thing he did was cut down the Holly Tree, effecting desecrating the most sacred living icon of all Saxons.

Holly and Christianity

In spite of Charlemagne best efforts, no other plant is more sacred to Christian history than the Holly, in spite of the fact that it is not native to any part of the Middle East or North Africa.

Holly as the wood of the cross

Holly is one of the trees said to be the tree of Christ's cross. Legend tells us that the trees of the forests refused the defilement of the cross, splintering into tiny fragments at the touch of the ax. Only the holly behaved like an ordinary tree, allowing itself to be cut and formed into a cross. It is as a Passion symbol that holly is found in pictures of various saints. It's presence indicates that the saint is either reflecting upon Christ's Passion or foretelling it.

Holly as the crown of thorns

In Germany, holly is called Christdorn in memory of Christ's crown of thorns. According to legend, the holly's branches were woven into a painful crown and placed on Christ's head while the soldiers mocked him saying, "Hail, King of the Jews." The holly's berries used to be white but Christ's blood left them with a permanent crimson stain. German tradition still call Holly by the name “Christ’s Thorn” Holly and the birth of Jesus Another legend about this Christmas plant says that a little orphan boy was living with the shepherds when the angels came to announce the birth of the newborn king. Having no gift for the baby, the child wove a crown of holly
branches for its head. But when he lay it before Christ, he became ashamed of it's poverty and began to cry. Miraculously, Jesus touched the crown and it began to sparkle while the orphan's tears turned into beautiful scarlet berries.

Holly protecting the “holy” family from Herod

Holly was believed formerly to have been deciduous, until Herod's soldiers came to slay the baby Jesus. At Mary's request, the holly tree regained its leaves in winter so that her infant could be hidden in the foliage.

Fact and fiction

While many other plants and often weeds (such as Mistletoe) have been deliberately or ignorantly raised up as having ancient significance to our ancestors, no other plant or more universally sacred, more universally mysterious than the Holy Tree, the “Holly”.


Aliens in the Quran

September 29, 2007


On 7th August 1996,NASA (1) scientists made an announcement that made front page headlines throughout the world.Within a Martian meteorite,they had found evidence of a microscopic lifeform that may have existed on Mars more than three billion years ago. (2) Although other studies were later published which challenged this conclusion, (3) numerous recent discoveries,for example,the discovery by the Galileo spacecraft, (4) in February 1997,of a possible red-coloured sea under the ice crust of Jupiter's moon,Europa, (5) are raising hopes that we may soon be able to get an answer to one of the oldest and most interesting questions asked by humans-"Is anyone out there,or are we alone in the universe?"

However,it may be that none of us may live to see the day when scientists will give us a definitive answer to this question.For Muslims,that should not be a problem.We already have the answer.Although many Muslims are unaware of the fact,the Quran (6) explicitly mentions the existence of extraterrestrial life.

The existence of creatures of a spiritual nature,such as angels,in the universe,is accepted as a fact by all Muslims,as well as people of other religions, such as Christians.The point that generates excitement among the public,and scientists is the question of whether material lifeforms like ourselves,which can be found by science,do actually exist outside the earth. (7) The objective of this article is to present evidence from the Quran for the existence in the universe,of MATERIAL lifeforms ("Life as we know it").


In Sura 42,Verse 29 (42:29) of the Quran,we are told, "Among His (God's) signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth,and the living creatures that He has scattered through them :and He has power to gather them together when He wills."
(8) Before proceeding further,a point or two must be noted.The word "sama",translated "heavens",is also the Arabic for "sky".One may object that the verse refers to creatures in the sky (which would be birds),not in the heavens.However,birds are mentioned seperately from creatures of the heavens in 24:41, "Seest thou not that it is God Whose praise all beings in the heavens and on earth do celebrate,and the birds (of the air) with wings outspread?..." (9) In a note to 42;29,Muhammad Asad states,"In the Quran,the expression "the heavens and earth" invariably denotes the universe in its entireity." (10) The Quran mentions that inanimate objects also worship God:"Do they not look at God's creation, (even) among (inanimate) things- how their (very) shadows turn round,from right to left,prostrating themselves to God..."(16:48). (11) Therefore,may not the creatures spoken of in 42:29 in the heavens,be inanimate creatures of God.No.The next verse,16:49 goes, "And to God doth obeisance all that is in the heavens and earth,whether moving (living) creatures or the angels...". (12) The word translated "living creatures" here is the same as that in 42:29- "Dabbatun".Comments Asad,"The word dabbah denotes any sentient,corporeal being capable of spontaneous movement and is contrasted here with the non-corporeal,spiritual beings designated as "angels" ". (13) In other words,42:29 is referring to precisely the type of lifeforms that science is searching for,not some metaphysical entities.Yusuf Ali says,"Dabbatun:beasts,living,crawling creatures of all kind." (14) This is the same word used in 2:164," the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth...are signs for a people that are wise," (15) and in 24:45,"And God has created every animal from water:of them are some that creep on their bellies;some that walk on two legs;and some that walk on four. God creates what he wills..." (16) Commenting on 42:29,Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani says,"From the verse it appears that like on the earth,there are some kinds of animals- living creatures- in the heavens also." (17) On the same verse,Yusuf Ali comments, "Life is not confined to our one little Planet.It is a very old speculation to imagine some life like human life on the planet is reasonable to suppose that Life in some form or other is scattered through some of the millions of heavenly bodies scattered through space." (18) From such remarks,the reader will realize that Muslim scholars are well aware of the fact that 42:29 clearly mentions the existence of aliens.

Is there any alien intelligent life ?

Although the discovery of any form of life outside the earth would be dramatic,humankind is especially interested in knowing whether there is any alien intelligent life in the universe.NASA previously had a program on the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI).Although now scrapped due to budget cuts, private SETI organizations
(19) have now been made which continue the search.The Planetary Society, (20) a private organization,in which the film director Steven Speilberg (21) is a member of the Board of Directors,has the largest SETI program in the world.So far, no sign of alien intelligent life has turned up.Can the Quran provide an answer?
Sura 27:65 commands,"Say:None in the heavens or on earth, except God,knows what is hidden:nor can they perceive when they shall be raised up (for Judgement)." (22) This shows that,like humans,there are other creatures in the universe that will also be raised from the dead.We are told in 19:93-96,"Not one of the beings in the heavens and the earth but must come to (God) Most Gracious as a servant.He does take an account of them (all),and hath numbered them (all) exactly.And everyone of them will come to Him singly on the Day of Judgement.On those who believe and work deeds of righteousness, will (God) Most Gracious bestow love." (23) From these verses we learn that there are alien lifeforms that,like us,will also be judged according to the works that they do during their lives.Among them are the believers.Therefore,naturally,there will also be those aliens who are unbelievers.The believers will be rewarded.The lifeforms being descibed in the above verses can hardly be expected to be microorganisms.The Quran is referring to creatures of a level of development that makes them morally accountable beings.They must be organisms possessing qualities which we would ascribe to intelligent lifeforms.

In Sura 72:14-15,jinn (a type of spiritual lifeform,which the Quran mention as living on the earth) say,"Amongst us are some that submit their wills (to God),and some that swerve from justice.Now those who submit their wills- they have sought out (the path) of right conduct:But those who swerve- they are (but) fuel for Hell-fire." (24) The Quran mentions that good jinn will be rewarded with Paradise.Summing up from all the above verses,it is clear that Judgement Day is for creatures in the whole universe (Sura 39:68-"The Trumpet will (just) be sounded when all that are in the heavens and on earth will swoon, except such as it will please God (to exempt).Then will a second one be sounded,when,behold,they will be standing and looking on!") (25) and like jinn,aliens will also be sharing Paradise and Hell with humans.In fact,the Quran mentions that Paradise is of a size like that of our present universe- 57:21,"Therefore (vie) with one another for the pardon of your Lord,and for a Paradise as vast as heaven and earh, prepared for those who believe in Allah and His apostles." (26) Therefore, it is not surprising that when we are sharing this universe with aliens,we should share Paradise and Hell with them too.The Quran shows us,therefore,that not only do aliens exist,but among them are also intelligent beings.

Where can aliens be found?

Knowing that aliens, including intelligent lifeforms exist elsewhere, our next question would be,"Where do they live?"Scientists naturally expect them to live on planets.They look for other planets around other stars- planets that have the right conditions to harbour life- in other words,other earths.In October 1995,scientists announced the discovery of the first extrasolar planet around the star 51 Pegasi.
(27) Since then,there have been a string of discoveries of other planets.At the time of writing of this article,fifteen planets have been claimed to have been discovered. (28) Although some of these objects have been dismissed as brown dwarfs (including the object around Pegasi 51) by some scientists, (29) at least some of the fifteen objects are agreed upon as being planets.Scientists believe that on potential moons around planets found to be orbiting two stars, the right conditions may exist for life to be present. (30)

In Sura 65:12,we are informed,"God is He Who created seven heavens and of the earth a similar number..."
(31) This verse,although usually translated properly,is very commonly misinterpreted by commentators.They give their interpretation that space is divided into seven zones,and likewise,as Yusuf Ali puts it,"the crust of the earth is built up of geological strata one above another". (32) This interpretation arises due to a misunderstanding of what a "heaven" is as mentioned in the Quran.Before continuing further about the topic of aliens,it is necessary to clear up this confusion.The answer can be deduced from verses in the Quran itself and comparing them with our current scientific knowledge about the universe.

Sura 21:30 asks,"Do not the unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation),before we clove them asunder?..." (33) Sura 41:11-12 tell us,"Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke,and said unto it and unto the earth:come both of you,willingly or loth...Then We ordained them seven heavens...and inspired in each heaven its mandate;and We decked the lowest heaven with lamps..." (34) and Sura 71:15-16,"See ye not how Allah hath created seven heavens in harmony,and hath made the moon a light therin,and made the sun a lamp?" (35) Sura 51:47 informs us,"And it is We who have built the universe with (Our creative) power;and,verily,it is We who are steadily expanding it." (36) Asad,comments on the above verses as follows:about 21:30,"...the above unmistakable reference to the unitary origin of the universe- metonymically described in the Quran as "the heavens and the earth"- strikingly anticipates the view of almost all modern astrophysicists that this universe has originated as one entity from one single element,namely,hydrogen,which became subsequently consolidated through gravity and then seperated into individual nebulae,galaxies,and solar systems,with individual parts progressively breaking away to form new entities in the shape of stars,planets and the latter's satellites"; (37) about 41:11,he explains the word "smoke" as,"a gas- evidently hydrogen gas,which physicists regard as the primal element from which all material particles of the universe have evolved and still evolve..." (38) and says about the verse,"explaining this passage,Zamakhshari observes:"The meaning of God's command to the skies (heavens) and the earth to "come"... is this:He willed their coming into being..."";for 41:12,he explains "seven heavens" as,"a multiplicity of cosmic systems"; (39) about 51:47 he says,"the phrase "inna la-musi'un" clearly foreshadows the modern notion of the "expanding universe"- that is,the fact that the cosmos,though finite in extent,is continuously expanding in space." (40) Finally,three more verses need to be referred to- 50:38,"And verily We created the heavens and the earth and all that is between them...and naught of weariness touched us" (41) ,21:104,"The Day when We shall roll up the heavens as a recorder rolleth up a written scroll.As We began the first creation,We shall repeat it.(It is a promise binding) upon Us.Lo!We are to perform it" (42) ,and 14:48, "One day the Earth will be changed to a different Earth,and so will be the heavens..." (43)

From the verses above,we learn this from the Quran:a heaven is a material entity which arose from the same material as the earth originated from.Initially,there was one gaseous mass.A cleavage process occured resulting in the making of the "seven heavens" and "all that lies between them".The sun,moon and earth are constituants of a heaven.Therefore,a heaven must be larger than a star (sun).When the end of the universe is at hand,the heavens,which till then were in an expanding universe (51:47) will come together.Then,the way our present universe came into being,in a similar manner,a new creation will come into being,containing other heavens and another earth.Any astronomer reading these verses can tell you that there is only one entity that fits the description of a heaven in the Quran- a "heaven" in the Quran must be referring to a "galaxy".According to modern science,the universe arose from a singularity,at the Big Bang,and has since,been expanding.From a primordial gas cloud arose hugh fragments from which the galaxies and their clusters arose.Today,the galaxies are moving apart from each other in space.They are seperated by intergalactic space in which may lurk invisible dark matter,making upto 90% of the total mass of the universe.if there is sufficient dark matter,at some time in the future,the universe will stop expanding and enter a contraction phase in which the galaxies will finally come close together in a Big Crunch marking an end to the present universe.The universe would have returned to a singularity state similar to that from which the present universe arose.Then,once again,scientists predict,a new universe may rebound from the singularity of the Big Crunch,as another Big Bang gives rise to a universe with its own galaxies and planets etc.Verses in the Quran agree amazingly with our current ideas about the universe!
The purpose of our lengthy divergence from the main topic of this article was to prove that the "seven heavens" are not zones into which the universe is divided,but large astronomical entities, the galaxies.Some people have interpretted a heaven as being a solar system.However,while this view may seem appropriate for some verses,it does not tally with all the verses.

The Quran mentions the creation of seven heavens.Asad explains that," regards the "seven heavens",it is to be borne in mind that in Arabic usage...the number "seven" is often synonymous with "several"." (44) I have shown that the heavens are the galaxies and we can see that millions of them exist.Even if we assume that the heaven are some other astronomical objects that arose from the primary gas cloud,they definitely are not literally seven in number,but in the millions.

The relevance of this to our discussion on aliens is that the Sura 65:12 tells us that,as God has created "seven Heavens",He has created,"of the earth a similar number..." Therefore,as there are millions of galaxies,God has also created millions of earths scattered throughout the universe.Usmani comments on 65:12,"The earths as well,He created seven (Usmani thinks literally seven.We know it actually means "many"),as given in the Tradition of Tirmizi etc.It is possible they are not visible, it is possible they are visible,but people think them to be stars or planets,as the scientists of today have predicted the possibility of life on Mars etc..." (45) An important thing to point out in 65:12 is that God does not use the word "worlds",but specifically,"earth".An 'earth' would be a planet that harbours life.Scientists also often speak of looking for other earths.They mean not just any planet,but one sustaining or capable of sustaining life.In his book,The Bible,The Quran and Science, Maurice Bucaille writes," comes as no small surprise to the reader of the Quran to find that earths such as our own may be found in the Universe..." (46)

We have finally arrived at the Quran's answer as to where aliens can be found.They inhabit the millions of earths that God has created among the millions of heavens (galaxies) in the universe. The Quran therefore,gives us a magnificent view of the universe- a universe teeming with life,a place that the late astronomer Carl Sagan described as a "cosmic fugue,with themes and counter- points,dissonances and harmonies,a billion different voices playing the life music." (47)
Will we ever discover aliens?

So far,we have learnt from the Quran that extraterrestrial life,inclucing intelligent life, exists throughout countless earths in the universe.But this is not sufficient to satisfy our curiosity.We want scientists to actually discover aliens.Only after we have found incontrovertible scientific evidence that aliens exist,will our (unbelieving) hearts see that the Quran was correct all along.We actually won't be satisfied till we meet an alien face to face.Is there any chance that in the future we will actually discover,through science,the existence of aliens and establish some kind of contact with them or even meet them?

To get some idea on this matter,we must return to Sura 42:29.We are told over there that the scattering of living creatures in the heavens and the earth is a "sign".What is a sign?Sura 6:104 says,"Momentous signs have come to you from your Lord.He that sees them shall himself have much to gain,but he who is blind to them shall lose much." (48) Sura 6:109,"They solemly swear by Allah that if a sign be given them they would believe in it." (49) Sura 7:73,"A clear proof has come to you from your Lord.Here is Allah's she-camel:a sign for you." (50) Clearly,a sign is something which we can see,or at least,experience with our senses.Otherwise,it would not be a sign.Some signs are those that God showed to humans in the past.Other signs remain for God to show us in the future-"Soon we will show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions,and in their own souls,until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth" (41:53). (51)


In Sura 55:33-34,we are addressed,"O ye assembly of Jinn and men!If it be you can pass beyond the regions of the heavens and the earth,pass ye!Not without authority will ye be able to pass!Then which of the favours of your Lord will ye deny?" (52) Why does God ask us to go into space? There must be some purpose.Maybe it be for us to fulfil some grand destiny in store for our species- maybe to become a galactic race,a respectable part of the galactic community of civilizations.Maybe,it is our travels in space that may lead to our encounter with aliens and fulfil the prophesy in 42:29.Only time will tell.In anticipation of the time when we become space-travellers,we are told in Sura 29:22, "Neither on earth nor in heaven shall you be beyond reach:nor have you any guardian or helper besides Allah." (53)

To reach other civilizations,we must be capable of feasible interstellar transport. Might we one day be capable of undertaking such a voyage?Sura 16:8 says,"And (it is He Who creates) horses and mules for you to ride...and He will yet create things of which (today) you have no knowledge." (54) The latter part of this verse is often translated in the present tense but as Asad points out,"The use in this context,of the aorist "yakhluqu" implies the future tense ("He will create") ...Since this reference to God's continuing creation comes immediately after a mention of primitive means of transport,it obviously relates to other- as yet unknown- things of the same category:that is to say,to new means of transport which God unceasingly creates through the instrumentality of the inventiveness with which He has endowed man's mind." (55) Therefore,it is possible that we may one day make the spacecraft required for interstellar travel.After all,God Himself has encouraged us to,"pass beyond the regions of the heavens".Sura 42:29 ends with the statement that God has the power to gather the creatures of the heavens and earth together if He wills.This also points to the possibility of our meeting aliens in the future.However,this gathering may well refer to that which will occur on Judgement Day as mentioned in Sura 19:93-96 (see above).

Man's position among creation

The most revolutionary discoveries in history have been those which altered the way humans perceived themselves in the universe.We discovered that the earth was not at the centre of the universe.We discovered that our Sun was a very ordinary star located in an insignificant part of an ordinary galaxy,which was only one of millions of galaxies.These discoveries should have humbled us.Yet,even today,many of us triumphantly proclaim ourselves as being the most supreme creation of God.It is common to ascribe our cherished position among all living things to our higher intellectual abilities.If we were to find out that there are other intelligent beings in the universe,and that some may be intellectually more superior to us,where would that leave us? Would we finally be dethroned?

Sura 17:70 informs us,"Verily We have honoured the children of Adam...and preferred them above many of those whom We created with a marked preferment." (56) Many translations fail to mention the "marked preferment" in the verse,although the verse contains the Arabic "tafzelan" which conveys this.Note that the verse mentions that there are other creatures besides humans,who have also been given a position of distinction,and humans have been preferred above many,not all,of these creatures.Usmani states in a comment on this verse,"Under this verse a debate is opened:Who is superior- Man or Angel?But logically this verse does not decide the issue." (57) Another scholar has written,"From this (verse) it is evident that whatever superiority humans have got over other creatures is not whole.Allah's creatures contain such creatures upon which humans have got no superiority."It must be remembered here that while so far we have been discussing material alien lifeforms,the debate of man's position in creation includes both material and spiritual creatures of God.Some early authorities,such as Hasan,have not accepted the word "akser" mentioned in 17:70 as meaning "many".Hasan maintains that the word "akser",as used in 17:70, should be understood as meaning "all",since the same word is used in 26:233 and 10:36,where it would be inappropriate to take its meaning as "many" but rather as "all".With such a substitution in verse 17:70,the meaning would be altered to mean that man is preferred by God over all creatures.

The debate on man's status continues among scholars and also among the public.Let us make an analogy to the debate of whether man is superior to woman.Suppose for a moment that we hand the trophy to man and let him enjoy his "superior" position.On the Day of Judgement,it will only be deeds that count and good women will go to Paradise and bad men will burn in Hell.Who would have been more superior?As you can see,in the final analysis,any debate on the status of a race,or species is useless.From earlier verses mentioned in this article,the reader will remember that,according to the Quran, God will judge humans as well as aliens on the basis of their deeds and reward them accordingly.Many humans will be sent to Hell for their wrongdoings. At the same time there will be aliens who will be rewarded for their good deeds.Who would be more superior- the unbelieving human or the faithful alien?The answer is obvious.Therefore,what's the use of debating this point?Status of a creature is relative to its moral conduct.Sura 95:4-5 states, "Surely We created man of the best stature,then We reduced him to the lowest of the low." (58)

Islam and the geocentric universe

It is the fanciful idea of religion-bashers that the discovery of extraterrestrial life will undermine any remaining credibility that religion may have.In the case of Islam,as one can see from this discussion,that can hardly be the case.On the contrary,such a discovery would verify the truth of the statements contained in the Quran relating to the subject of alien life,and strengthen the position of Muslims.The vision of Islam is that of a truly universal religion.It is far removed from the exclusiveness of Judaism ("We are the Chosen Ones for God's message").It is a pity that the image of all religions has suffered a setback from the great scandal of the Church- its treatment of Galileo,for (rightly) challenging their views of a geocentric universe,in which Man was The Central Figure in God's Plan of Creation,living on a planet around which all the rest of creation revolved.

The Quran gives us a picture of our place in the universe that is quite different.In Sura 40:57,God says, "Assuredly the creation of the heavens and the earth is a greater (matter) than the creation of men:yet most men understand not." (59) Comments Yusuf Ali,"Man is himself a tiny part of creation.Why should he be so ego-centric?" (60) No one race of humans was chosen to be the exclusive custodians of the truth.Sura 16:36 tells us,"For We assuredly sent amongst every People an apostle,(with the command),"Serve God,and eschew Evil":of the people were some whom God guided,and others on whom Error became inevitably (established).So travel through the earth,and see what was the end of those who denied (the Truth)." (61) According to some Traditions of The Prophet (pbuh), 124,000 messengers have been sent into the world by God,throughout the ages to people all over the world.No nation was denied access to the Truth.Even on earth,guidance was provided not only to humans,but also the Jinn who co-habit this planet with us- 6:130:"(Then He will say):"Jinn and men!Did there not come to you apostles of your own who proclaimed to you my revelations and warned you of this day?" (62) .God's bounty,according to Islam,is not confined to creatures of the earth because He is,"...Lord of the heavens and Lord of the earth,the Lord of the Worlds" (45:36). (63) To the people were sent revealed Books also,the last of which is the Quran.About the Quran itself,we are told in 43:4,"It is in the Mother Book with Us,sublime and full of wisdom." (64) About other planets,S.Bashir-ud-din Mahmood has this to say,"On the basis of the interpretation of verse 65:12 by Ibn-e-Abbas (May Allah be pleased with him),we can say that inhabitants of these worlds must have their religion like ours and so the Holy Books.They all come from the same "Supreme Source" of revelation from where the Holy Quran originated for us on the Earth.It is evident from the verse of the Holy Quran" (ie.43;4.All Books come from the "Mother Book with Us"). (65) The very first verse of the Quran begins,"Praise be to Allah,Lord of the Worlds." (66)
Summing up,while the Quran does point out that man has a favoured position on earth, (2:30-"Behold,thy Lord said to the angels:"I will create a vicegerent on earth.""; (67) 2:34- "We said to the angels:"Bow down to Adam..."" (68) 95:4- We have indeed created man in the best of moulds." (69) ) there are other creatures of God who have also been favoured in the universe (17:70).Humans are just a small part of God's creation (40:57).When they act wrongly,they are reduced to the lowest of the low (95:5).Salvation is not only for some race of humans, but for all humans and creatures throughout the universe.There is a grand destiny planned by God for all of them.All humans as well as aliens who follow the guidance that God sent to their respective planets,will be rewarded (19:96)." is God Whose praise all beings in the heavens and on earth do celebrate..."(24:41). (70) All will return to Him.How far the picture of the universe that Islam paints is from that of a geocentric universe!

Conclusion - a "secret" waiting to be told

If the Quran is so explicit in stating the existence of living organisms in the universe (42:29),we would suppose that the Muslim population would generally be aware of the fact that the Quran mentions extraterrestrials.Unfortunately that is not the case.A significant proportion of Muslims have no idea that this exciting piece of information is provided in their Holy Book.I have quoted a number of scholars in this article,who have commented on the verses relating to extraterrestrials.Among them are those such as Yusuf Ali and Muhammad Asad,whose works are known to Muslims throughout the world.Allama Shabbir Ahmad Usmani was a prominent figure in the Freedom Movement of Pakistan.All scholars quoted are from the mainstream of Islam. So,at least,Muslim scholars are aware of the Quran mentioning aliens.Yet,there are scholars also who have no idea about this subject.Surprisingly,even Maurice Bucaille,whose brilliant book, The Bible,The Quran and Science is extensive in its coverage of scientific topics in the Quran,completely overlooked the mention of aliens.

How aware were the early Muslims,about the existence of extraterrestrials,or verses in the Quran on this topic?Bashir-ud-Din Mahmood writes,"The idea that there is life elsewhere in the universe also,was derived from the Prophet of Allah (pbuh) when he told Muslims,"When you sit down in the prayer for the Attahiyat and say: "Peace be upon us,and the righteous servants of Allah" you actually send peace on all the righteous people living on the Earth and in the heavens."This clearly implies that all type of people,good and bad live in the other worlds as they live on our Earth." (71) He also writes,with reference to the Rasial Imam Ghazali,"According to Imam Muhammad Ghazali (11th Century),people in some of these planetary worlds have learnt to travel and communicate with each other." (72)
The case of Ibn-e-Abbas is interesting.He was one of the Companions of the Prophet (pbuh).The Prophet (pbuh) had prayed to God specially to endow Ibn-e-Abbas(73) with knowledge of the Quran,and he became one of the great scholars of the Quran.Maulana Maududi writing in his Tafhim-ul-Quran,tells us that,"Ibn-e-Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him)...believed with confidence that there are many more earth-like bodies in the heavens. ...He not only thought that such earths are inhabited by intelligent beings but also that their people are exactly like the inhabitants on the Earth.He even went so far as to say that they may have a Prophet like Muhammad (pbuh),and had a Adam,like our Adam,a Noah,like our Noah,an Ibrahim like our Ibrahim,and a Jesus like our Jesus (pbut)." (74) The knowledge of the existence of aliens and that they are mentioned in the Quran, has been present among Muslims from the earliest days of Islam!

There is something else that we know about Ibn-e-Abbas.He did not widely publicize his views about aliens. Rather,he was quite secretive about this matter.The reason is that he was afraid that his ideas would confuse people.In fact,he was afraid that people would be in danger of becoming unbelievers by not accepting the truth of this matter,which the Quran itself attested to.Perhaps it was such considerations that lead Muslim scholars of later times not to touch on the topic of aliens much,and so today,also,so many Muslims remain unaware about this matter.But times have changed.We've come a long way in our voyage of discovery of the wonders that surround us.The recent discoveries of extrasolar planets,of ice on the moon (75) ,of microbes deep beneath the earth's surface and around thermal vents in the oceans (76) ,of water on the sun (77) and many other amazing findings are setting the stage for a grand finale.The public is mentally prepared to hear soon about the discovery of life outside the earth.

In recent times,Muslims have missed golden opportunities of propagating their religion to the peoples of the world.For example,the Quran mentions the expansion of the universe.This phenomenon was discovered by scientists only in 1929.If Muslims had let the world know beforehand,that the Quran mentioned this fact, then upon its discovery,a big impact could have been made on the non-Muslim world.We would have shown the world the power,the miracle,of the Quran.Of course,even today,the miracle remains that the Quran mentions the expansion of the universe,but non-Muslims tend to say,"Now you tell us,after science has already discovered this!You must be construeing the meaning of Quranic verses to suit your wishes."

Today,as we stand at the threshold of making the most revolutionary discovery in the history of humankind,we Muslims should ask ourselves,"Hasn't the time finally come for the "secret" that Ibn-e-Abbas held to be made known to the whole world?"Yes,the time is ripe.Let the world know,before it discovers for itself,that 1400 years ago in the deserts of Arabia,a prophet received revelations,mentioning the existence of extraterrestrial life through countless heavenly bodies in the universe,and prophesying that one day, humans will indeed discover aliens.

The Quran contains many amazing statements relating to science.There is no reason to believe that it has finally yielded all of its scientific secrets and as we enter the next century,we can be confidant that the Quran will continue to shed light on some of the most enduring and intriguing scientific mysteries of our times.


NASA Home Page 2.Medline citation --Ref:Search For Past Life On Mars:Possible Biogenic Activity In Martian Meteorite 2.ALH84001.McKay et al. in Science,Vol.273,pages 924-930;August 16,1996. --Scientific American:The Case For Relic Life On Mars.December 1997. 3.Ref:Scott,Edward R.D. et al,Petrological evidence of shock melting of carbonates the martian meteorite ALH84001.Nature,387,377-379(22 May,1997). 4.Galileo Home Page 5.Water on Europa: --NASA Space Science News:The Frosty Plains of Europa 6.The Quran: --Translations by Yusuf Ali,Pickthall and Shakir.Muslim Students Association site --(MSA-USC),containing the entire translated text by three scholars. --Quran Search Engine.Search for verses in the Quran by key words. --Transliteration of the Quran.The complete transliterated text of the Quran. --Listen to the Quran.The complete text recited in Arabic.Files can be downloaded and saved too. --Quran Reciter.Learn how to recite the Quran. 7.The Astrobiology Web.Information on space life science.Highly recommended.
"Dabbatun" 8.Sura 42:29.The Holy Quran.Text,Translation and Commentary.Abdullah Yusuf Ali. 9.Sura 24:41.Yusuf Ali. 10.Note 33 on Sura 42:29.The Message of the Quran.
Muhammad Asad. 11.Sura 16:48.Yusuf Ali. 12.Sura 16:49.Yusuf Ali. 13.Note 55 on Sura 16:49.Asad. 14.Note 4568 on Sura 42:29.Yusuf Ali. 15.Sura 2:164.Yusuf Ali. 16.Sura 24:45.Yusuf Ali. 17.Note 43 on Sura 42:29.The Nobel Quran.Tafseer-e-Usmani.Allama Shabbir Ahmed 17.Usmani. 18.Note 4569 on 42:29.Yusuf Ali.
Is there any alien intelligent life ? 19.SETI organizations: ---
The SETI Institute.SETI@home.Now you can participate in the search for extraterrestrial intelligence ---from your own home by installing a screen saver.Check it out. 20.The Planetary Society.This has the world's largest SETI program. 21.Steven Spielberg. 22.Sura 27:65.Yusuf Ali. 23.Sura 19:93-96.Yusuf Ali. 24.Sura 72:14-15.Yusuf Ali. 25.Sura 39:68.Yusuf Ali. 26.Sura 57:21.The Meaning of the Quran.Dr. Mahmud Y. Zayid.
Where can aliens be found ? 27.A planet around 51 Pegasi: ----Mayor,M. & Queloz,D.A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star.Nature ----378,355-359.(1995). 28.
The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia.The main internet catalogue of all extrasolar planets 28. discovered so far. 29.Challenge to a planet around 51 Pegasi: ----Walker,Gordan.One of our planets is missing.Nature,385,775-776.(27 Feb 1997). ----Gray,David F.Absence of a planetary signature in the spectra of the star 51 Pegasi. ----Nature,385,795-796.(27 Feb 1997). ----Update:- New evidence for a planet around 51 Pegasi: ----Marcy,Geoffrey.Extrasolar planets:Back in focus.Nature,391,127.(8 Jan 1998). ----Gray,David F.A planetary companion for 51 Pegasi implied by absence of pulsations in the---- stellar spectra.Nature,391,153-154.(8 Jan 1998). ----Hatzes,Artie P. et al.Further evidence for the planet around 51 Pegasi.Nature,391, ----154-156.(8 Jan 1998). 30.The possible earths are potential moons of planets orbiting 16 Cygni B in the Swan ----and 47 Uma in Ursae Majoris. ----Chyba,Christopher F.Exobiology:Life on other moons.Nature,385,201.(16 Jan '97). ----Williams,Darren M. et al.Habitable moons around extrasolar giant planets.Nature, ----385,234-236.(16 Jan 1997). 31.Sura 65:12.Yusuf Ali. 32.Note 5527 on Sura 65:12.Yusuf Ali. 33.Sura 21:30.Yusuf Ali. 34.Sura 41:11-12.The Glorious Quran.Text and Explanatory Translation.Muhammad ----Marmaduke Pickthall. 35.Sura 71:15-16.Pickthall. 36.Sura 51:47.Asad. 37.Note 38 on Sura 21:30.Asad. 38.Note 12 and Note 13 on Sura 41:11.Asad. 39.Note 14 on Sura 41:12.Asad. 40.Note 31 on Sura 51:47.Asad. 41.Sura 50:38.Pickthall. 42.Sura 21:104.Pickthall. 43.Sura 14:48.Yusuf Ali. 44.Note 20 on Sura 2:29.Asad. 45.Note 32 on Sura 65:12.Usmani. 46.Ref:Bucaille,Maurice.The Bible,The Quran and Science.Section:The Quran and 46.Modern Science.Chapter III:The Creation of the Heavens and the Earth. 46.Subheading:The Basic Process of the Formation of the Universe and the Resulting 46.Composition of the Worlds. 47.Ref:Sagan,Carl.Cosmos.Chapter II. ----Read the classic article:The Quest for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.By Carl Sagan.
Will we ever discover aliens ? 48.Sura 6:104.Zayid. 49.Sura 6:109.Zayid. 50.Sura 7:73.Zayid. 51.Sura 41:53.Yusuf Ali. 52.Sura 55:33-34.Yusuf Ali. 53.Sura 29:22.Zayid. 54.Sura 16:8.Asad. 55.Note 6 on Sura 16:8.Asad.
Man's position among creation 56.Sura 17:70.Pickthall. 57.Note 105 on Sura 17:70.Usmani. 58.Sura 95:4-5.Pickthall.

Islam and the geocentric universe 59.Sura 40:57.Yusuf Ali. 60.Note 4431 on Sura 40:57.Yusuf Ali. 61.Sura 16:36.Yusuf Ali. 62.Sura 6:130.Zayid. 63.Sura 45:36.Pickthall. 64.Sura 43:4.Zayid. 65.Ref:Mahmood,Bashir-ud-din.Doomsday and Life After Death.Chapter 18, 65.Sub-heading:The Quran in Other Worlds.Ta-Ha Publishers. 66.Sura 1:1.Pickthall. 67.Sura 2:30.Yusuf Ali. 68.Sura 2:34.Yusuf Ali. 69.Sura 95:4.Yusuf Ali. 70.Sura 24:41.Yusuf Ali.
Conclusion - a "secret" waiting to be told 71.Ref:Mahmood,Bashir-ud-din.Doomsday and Life After Death.Chapter 18, 71.Sub-heading:Life in Other Worlds. 72.Ref:Mahmood,Bashir-ud-din.Doomsday and Life After Death.Chapter 18, 72.Sub-heading:Life in Other Worlds. 73.
Ibn-e-Abbas- a short biographical note 74.Maududi,Abul Ala.Tahfhim-ul-Quran. 75.Ice on the Moon: ----NASA Press Release:Ice on the Moon.76.Subterranean microbes: ----Wellsbury,Peter et al.Deep marine biosphere fuelled by increasing organic matter ----availability during burial and heating.Nature,388,573-576.(7 Aug 1997). ----Scientific American:Article:Microbes Deep Inside the Earth.October 1996. 77.Water on the Sun: ----Polyansky,Oleg L. et al.Water on the Sun:Line Assignments Based on Variational ----Calculations.Science,Vol.277,pages 346-348;July 18,1997. ----Science magazine

Other Online Sources on Aliens in the Quran: 78.
Aliens- an article on aliens in Islam. 79.Extra-terrestrial Life: Religious & Scientific Findings- an article on aliens in the Quran. 80.The Quran and Extraterrestrial Life- another article on aliens in the Quran. 81.Does Islam believe in extra-terrestrial life?- this question is answered in a seven minute audio file.

Note: Muslim and Non-Muslim visitors to the web sites and, on which Links 83 and 84 above lead, respectively, must take note that both these sites belong to the Ahmadiyya/Qadiani community. The overwhelming majority of Muslims do not recognize them as Muslims. Therefore, visitors who decide to roam around in these sites must be cautious that some material on these sites may not reflect the beliefs and views of mainstream Islam. However, as the contents of the links given above do not contain any such material of a conflicting nature, I have retained them.

Other Online Sources Mentioning Aliens in Islam: 82.ET and God- an article by Professor Paul Davies. One paragraph refers to aliens in the Quran and 83.Islam.

Free Online Video on Islam & Science: 83.The Quran and Space Sciences- by Zahir Abbas- watch this 30 minutes movie online for free,78. using Real Player! The movie also discusses aliens in the Quran.

Free Online Books on Islam & Science: 84.The Bible, The Quran and Science- by Maurice Bucaille- read the entire book online! 85.Harun read numerous books by the author,all free! Site also contains free videos!

Other Links on Islam and Science: 86.Islam and Science- a list of sites to visit 87.Science in Islam- contains links to articles on science and Islam 88.Twin Sisters- an article on science and Islam with links to other articles on science and Islam. 89.Islam- The Modern Religion- contains information on science and other Islamic topics 90.The Quran and Science- contains articles on Islam and evolution, anthropology, relativity and90. other interesting topics 91.It is the Truth- a site containing information on some of the scientific topics discussed in the 91.Quran.

General Islamic Sites: 92.Islam-QA:Islam Questions and Answers- contains answers to many questions asked 92.about Islam. 93.Islam contains news,review articles, forums and Islamic rulings. 94.IslamiCity- contains news, articles, audiovisual material and much more. 95.Islamic Interlink- the directory of Islam on the internet. A search engine.
Islamic Clubs on Yahoo!: 96.Scientific Community for Muslims- discuss Science and Islam online 97.Islamic Community

Aliens: 98. includes photographs and pictures, conspiracy theories, links, and forums about 98.UFOs, extraterrestrials, aliens, flying saucers, and other paranormal activity. contains articles and news updates on UFOs and other paranormal 98.phenomena.

Other Links: 100.Planet Quest - the search for another earth- NASA's Jet Propulsion
Laboratory web site keeps up to date with the news.

Copyright Clearance
I have been approached in the past for permission to use my article on other web sites. My article is not copyright material (excluding referenced material). Therefore, feel free to use it in part, or in its entirety as you please. It may also be edited in any way convenient. Authorship also does not need to be acknowledged.

Launched by Samir Khalid Munir ( on 29th March 1999 (10th Zul Hijjah,1419).

Last updated on 29th April 2004 (10th Rabi' Al-Awwal,1425).


Ancient Greek Aphrodisiacs

by Yona Williams
20 september 2007

When it comes to getting ancient Greeks in the mood, aphrodisiacs were a popular method of setting sparks in the bedroom. Plenty of foods and drinks consumed during ancient Greek times were combined to set off romantic responses. Some of these foods were combined with other items to make these aphrodisiacs. An example of one of these edible love potions is cheese and garlic mixed with wine. Overall, an aphrodisiac paid homage to Aphrodite, who was known as the Greek goddess of love and beauty.

In ancient times, the ancient Greeks dappled greatly with foods that opened doors for improved performances between the sheets, as well as increased endurance and an elevated sense of pleasure. Throughout the ancient years, a collection of well-known characters has found ways into increase and other uplifting actions.

Hippocrates, who is considered the "father of medicine," is thought to have encouraged others to consume lentils to keeps an older man alert. This practice was followed by Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, who added saffron to the lentils. Plutach, promoted fassolatha (the national dish of Greece – bean soup) as a good way to increase libido. Other inhabitants at the time turned towards artichokes as their aphrodisiac of choice. It was believed that eating this vegetable would seal the promise of giving birth to sons. Below you will find a couple of the aphrodisiacs that were quite popular in ancient Greece:

Edible Bulbs

In ancient Greece, it was believed by many that eating certain bitter edible bulbs would create passion. They were cooked in many different ways, as well as mixed with honey and sesame seeds to create what was known as an “aphrodisiac salad." These accompanying ingredients were known to increase the libido. Actually, these recipes are not too far from the marinated bulbs still prepared today.

Garlic and Onions

One of the most ancient of foods, garlic was thought to bring magical and therapeutic results. It was also viewed as an effective aphrodisiac, which is quite funny because of the pungent smell. During the times of Homer, the Greeks ate garlic on a daily basis with bread. The food was also used as a condiment and added to salads. It was also used as a main ingredient in garlic paste, which was comprised of cheese, eggs, honey, and oil. Onions were also eaten on a regular basis and were quite known for their therapeutic benefits, as well as aphrodisiac properties.


Many ancient Greeks turned to satirio, which is a wild orchid variety that is known as an excellent aphrodesiac – deemed by Dioscorides, who was seen as the 1st century founder of pharmacology. Plutach also made mention of this flower in his writings of Precepts of Health.

Stafylinos: This plant blossomed from a seed in the wild that is thought to increase sexual desire in such a way that it is deemed a "sex potion."


It has always been a belief that truffles create a high-level aphrodisiac. Even in the past (as in today), they were quite rare and very pricey, as they grew just below the surface of sandy shorelines in ancient times.


Not only were leeks used as an aphrodisiac, they were also valued for their diuretic and laxative properties. It is believed that the shape of this food gave way to the view of them being used as an aphrodisiac.


Study: Parallel universes exist

September 23, 2007

Parallel universes really do exist, according to a mathematical discovery by Oxford scientists described by one expert as "one of the most important developments in the history of science".

The parallel universe theory, first proposed in 1950 by the US physicist Hugh Everett, helps explain mysteries of quantum mechanics that have baffled scientists for decades, it is claimed.

In Everett's "many worlds" universe, every time a new physical possibility is explored, the universe splits. Given a number of possible alternative outcomes, each one is played out - in its own universe.

A motorist who has a near miss, for instance, might feel relieved at his lucky escape. But in a parallel universe, another version of the same driver will have been killed. Yet another universe will see the motorist recover after treatment in hospital. The number of alternative scenarios is endless.

It is a bizarre idea which has been dismissed as fanciful by many experts. But the new research from Oxford shows that it offers a mathematical answer to quantum conundrums that cannot be dismissed lightly - and suggests that Dr Everett, who was a Phd student at Princeton University when he came up with the theory, was on the right track.

Commenting in New Scientist magazine, Dr Andy Albrecht, a physicist at the University of California at Davis, said: "This work will go down as one of the most important developments in the history of science."

According to quantum mechanics, nothing at the subatomic scale can really be said to exist until it is observed. Until then, particles occupy nebulous "superposition" states, in which they can have simultaneous "up" and "down" spins, or appear to be in different places at the same time.

Observation appears to "nail down" a particular state of reality, in the same way as a spinning coin can only be said to be in a "heads" or "tails" state once it is caught.

According to quantum mechanics, unobserved particles are described by "wave functions" representing a set of multiple "probable" states. When an observer makes a measurement, the particle then settles down into one of these multiple options.

The Oxford team, led by Dr David Deutsch, showed mathematically that the bush-like branching structure created by the universe splitting into parallel versions of itself can explain the probabilistic nature of quantum outcomes.

© Copyright Press Association Ltd 2007, All Rights Reserved.


Learn Secrets of Ascension

20 september 2007

How to escape the 'Wheel of Rebirth'

and why we have not achieved

Spiritual Liberation

even at death, without this

previously missing information

Discover More on the Real Secret.....of Finally Understanding the Truth Behind Our Reality......

Module 1 'Dream Matrix Override Mission' introduces some alterations to the concepts we believe define 'spirituality'. It begins to present a 'bigger picture' which directly relates to the ongoing problem of how to Escape the 'Wheel of Rebirth' - a problem that has consistently eluded us throughout untold thousands of previous rounds through a Celestial Zodiac Ages exactly the same as we are experiencing now. Yet every time, even when all the same mystical and interdimensional phenomena has occurred through these untold number of previous rounds, the spiritual practitioners of this planet have consistently failed to find the missing key which reveals Soul Liberation from the 'Wheel'. We hope you enjoy the following article:

The Secrets of the Missing Portal Co-ordinates

Recently translated and ancient records reveal information that has been denied to us for millennia. Ancient records like the Zend Avesta said to pre-date the biblical flood, reveal a very sophisticated Atomic Science and bio-spiritual anatomy, beyond our knowledge of Quantum Mechanics or General Relativity. This science is consistent with the capabilities of those who built the Pyramids and it was once taught by the Essenes who though also known by other names, gave us the teachings of Christ Alignment. Fortunately, these records are in private ownership and are still being translated. They are revelationary in their message.

Decoding surviving ancient records required a commitment to the 'inner journey' and using the ancient 'spiritual practice' techniques in order to activate more of the dormant brain abilities which then enabled more of the material to be understood. What we consider today to be 'spiritual techniques' may originally have been advanced strategies based on a scientific knowledge of the hologram in which reality takes place. Millennia later, the information required for 'Spiritual Liberation' from a circumstance that the people had forgotten the reasons for 'why', could only be presented to the uneducated masses as stories, parables, guidelines for 'good behavior' and natural health and hygiene strategies. However, the material that was taught to those who gained access to the 'inner circle' was something very different and very advanced, related to an ancient pre-Atlantean Galactic Science paradigm that understood Living Galaxies and dying [falling] Illuminati Galaxies.

Translations show a huge amount of data which on its own merits would appear to reveal an entire spiritual blueprint based on mathematics, sacred geometry [sacred gematry] the functioning of universal creation physics, sacred acoustics and the power of sound, sacred spirals, and other clearly advanced subjects of knowledge. It was this 'forbidden knowledge' and the controversial danger it exposed, for which John the Baptist was beheaded.

This ancient science details the structure upon which our reality and spirituality manifest. Interestingly, this knowledge is also written in detail, in the Dead Sea Scrolls and the more ancient Zend Avesta, but it has been misrepresented and incorrectly translated. Because of this, it has remained hidden right under our noses.........unless you happen to know what you are looking for.

Amongst other intriguing experiences, are quite extraordinary levels of memory returning. This is a memory to do with an event that took place around 12,000 years ago. Once you begin to experience this through spiritual practice and inner alignments at this special time, it is like waking up from something that happened only the day before.

Atlantis and an ancient pre-human civilization of very tall humanlike beings with conical heads.

Some of the topics covered in this essential new work, are 'other forms' of pre current human biologies. The existence of a pre-recorded history, technologically advanced world civilization, is not officially acknowledged, even though the Greek philosopher Plato, a respected academic of his day, did write about the reality of such a world called Atlantis. Atlantis was associated with Egypt, the Mediterranean and beyond. This makes the region of the Mediterranean very interesting, not just the region of Egypt. Interestingly, British academia appears to have allowed some seriously misrepresentative information to remain on official records about the sophistication of pre-history Malta for instance. Then there is the question of up to six thousand now missing human skeletons found there, all with strange conical heads. You may be aware that the artwork of the Egyptian Tel al-Amarna period of Amenhotep 1V, better known to us as Pharaoh Akhenaten, shows a biology strikingly similar to these lost skeletons. Akhenaten made a point of deliberately showing the biology/physiology of himself, the otherwise beautiful Nefertiti, and the entire lineage realistically. However, this biology was different from the Guardian/Guardener races who recorded the Ancient Library.

Atlantis, Camelot, Persia and the origin of the Maji Grail

Whether the existence of Atlantis is officially provable or not, there is never-the-less, a very interesting history given in these records. For the first time we learn about an ancient Camelot and the ' guardeners' of the Maji Grail Lineage located in Ancient Briton and Ireland, who were attacked from Atlantis (region of Bermuda). This warfare use of the Type 3 civilization's sophisticated acoustic and spiral energy power system caused massive internal explosions at Earth's core, and Earth subsequently tilted and fell off alignment from the sun. This left Earth with a wandering magnetic north and it's current wobbling axis. Even this was not the first such attempt, as geological records also show it happened at least twice before in the past 200,000 years.

Each time these anomalies were measured extensively and recorded, often in 'books', along with grave concerns about receiving increasingly stronger 'homing signals' from the descending magnetic polarity of this galaxy, presenting an anti-Source conflict. If you know your 'ancient history' you will know the 'ancients' were seemingly obsessed with measuring the planet, and building structures aligning with the sun - all in an attempt to restore the correct Arc-angles. Learning and understanding the significance of these alignments that were so vital to our 'advanced elders', will change your understanding of life forever.

Portals, and Ancient Doorways to the Stars

Machu Picchu Sanctuary, showing the prominent peak of Huayna Picchu

Shamans of Mexico, Peru and Siberia etc have long taught of hidden 'doorways' to the stars, and other dimensions. They claim there was once a time when it was normal to use these portals, and they were still in use as recent as 13,000 years ago. They know this because if one still has the 'right' biology, it is possible to still access some of the few remaining 'doors'. But in our world today, even the existence of these 'doorways' is hardly common knowledge.

Since this time, no-one has been able to escape from the planet, even at death, unless they were specifically taken into the knowledge and instructed into the mechanics given in these records.

They could however, venture into the 'Astral Worlds', also called the Shadow or 'In-Between Worlds' - and be none the wiser

With access to existing ancient records and the sacred structure of the universal physics and math - which are presented in a representative manner in this simplified interpretation of material - it is blatantly obvious that our lack of common knowledge about astral and 'shadow realms' is a fatal misunderstanding. This manual is made available so that you can learn why this is true. You will be able to satisfy the intellectual need to know, the 'hunger for more', and even satisfy the need for romanticized 'spiritual mysticism', and then make informed choices in the years to come.

UFO's and Ancient Alien Contact

Currently the entire gamut of UFO visitation is entering and leaving this reality field via counter-clockwise vortices. You can learn what this means and how to identify the origin of unfriendly alien contact, through understanding the significance of this. Some have interpreted the lack of 'invasion' as a benign interest indicating 'friendly aliens'. This is not the case. It is simply that the plan has taken many, many millennia and has not yet been completed - but it is now in its final stages. What are the steps you need to take to overcome this?

The ancient records indicate that similar contact did exist in our distant past, mainly beings called Ainu/Anu originating in Ancient Sumer and described in the Zend Avesta as beings of the 'Dark Force' which the Guardeners called Angra Mainu. Figurines of lizard-headed beings have been found in Ur in a culture known for painted pottery; large houses which can accommodate extended families; and lizard-headed figurines of both male and female gender apparently occupying these homes. Similar lizard-headed figurines have been found at other archeological sites of interest. This stage of biology is a stage of development and although it has great intellectual capacity, it does not have the ability for love and compassion. They began breeding with the original mankind and are now part of our biology in general, some much more, and some much less than others. The 'Ainu' came in through the same counter-clockwise vortices. Learn more about the counter-clockwise vortices and what they really mean.

Most psychic communication is also coming in on the same frequency bands, because our planet is now cloaked in an artificial system. It is the planetary energetic system and our biology which has been the object of an ancient 'invasion plan'. Many instructions and 'activations' are being programmed in via this false source. They are represented as 'spiritual' because they are received through the mind, and inner visual and auditory complexes. Armed with more knowledge, you will be able to recognize what this is and how such information can be broadcast and received in this way. You can also learn what affect these activations have on the human biology, and understand what it ultimately means.

DNA Activations - Eternal Life Coding and Reverse Coding aka the Tree of Live [Living Energy] and the Tree of Reverse Live

The reverse of the Tree of Life, is Mind without the biological ability for love and compassion. It is also why such uncontrolled intellect can ignorantly take out a living energy system and think nothing of it. The Christos Essaiah-Maji came to this planet because of this very reason. They are/were real people. They were a different biology to the pharaohs of Egypt whom they oversaw, and when all was going well oftentimes worked alongside. They were nice, good humored, very intelligent, and compassionate - which is why they came to help this troubled system and its hypnotized people in the first place. Sometimes called N'azurite or M'Essaiah in Ancient Palestine, they had gone there as healers of the damaged planetary system. They knew of, and taught, the structure of the Blueprint and how to not only access the 'Ascending Worlds' but how to recognize the 'phantom' astral worlds of the descending path. Without knowledge of the actual structure, it is virtually impossible to recognize that what seems to be the way, is anything but what it seems to be.

They taught exactly and precisely what the structure of a universal system is, how it functions, why it is as it is, and what happens if you get caught up in the magnetic forces of a galactic system. They taught how to correct the damage that had occurred with the planet's tilt, firstly aiming to correct the planet itself, then through training individuals. Following this began a mission taking thousands of years to help souls escape through alternative exit systems. These are the same instructions that are introduced in this manual. 3,000 years ago Pharaoh Akhenaten was one of those who started out, but did not finish, in this role.

Essaiah as M'Essaiah is indeed a real name for these people who were well aware of the falling status of Earth. Perhaps such a skill would qualify as being described as 'saviors'? It is their records, and their forefather's records that we have, and introduce in Earth-Escape. It is also the remnants of these records that have been defamed, turned into 'media entertainment', and successfully made redundant in our seemingly real reality system. Let us say that the Lords of Time, and the existence of the Matrix, have both succeeded in controlling the show.

Learn How to Override the Control of This Reality System

The earlier Essenes once known by other names, are acknowledged as the builders of the Sphinx and Hall of Records. In earlier times they were known as the 'People of the Lion' and they lived in Khemalot-Ireland-Ethiopia to Persia-India-Bali and Khemmea - the name for pre-dynastic Egypt. At the time of the assault, and as the ones under attack - and even though it may seem strange or fantastic to us now - they claim to have retreated through the Earth's once natural door system.

Also known by a number of descriptive variations of their names, such as Assayani, in Ancient Briton as Druids, and later by the description Essene, their ancient teachings show the biological alignments needed for accessing the current surviving portal alignments in time for 2012. After this window in time, Earth continues on a journey away from the portals and a possible link up time can never happen again.

No matter how sincere your search;

how straightforward it should seem to be,

or how enchanting psychically received information may be,

you must also be connected into the structure of the

correct, but now 'lost' 'Door' Network back into the

Greater Galactic System to achieve actual

Spiritual Liberation.

The records and this information exist and have continued since the time of the Christ and before. The Essene School can now begin to share this knowledge with you, so you too will have access to an ancient knowledge presented in a simplified introduction, even at Masters Level. The Essenes left this world long ago but the spiritual 'lifeline' never went away.

Can we present examples that you can identify with, to better understand the tilt, 'fall', and 'losing energy' that has happened to the Earth? Today, the Earth is often described as a 'global brain'. When we look at the obvious wobble and tilt of the Earth, we can also see that the human brain has mutated in pattern. We know we have access to less than 10% of our brain's real potential. Why is this? We now talk of being 'left brain' dominant and 'no longer balanced'. We understand that the left brain hemisphere is electrical-male-intellect, although curiously, the left side of the body is actually magnetic.

This is part of the 'fall' written of in ancient texts which taught of exercises, to bring the brain back to the 'right' and thus re-activate the 'missing' 90%' of 'who we are'. Additionally, If one has been taken into the protection of the 'Portal Master' then the soul can be escorted out of this Matrix. If we do not know this, we will still achieve a 'balance', still achieve some blinding 'illuminations', stunning experiences of brain hemisphere integration , and a sense of 'true beingness' etc, but not with Original Source! This was the warning the ancients tried to pass on to us in all the records which 'went missing'.

Then there is the matter of the 'portals', and a fact we well know, that for some reason we cannot escape this planet even at death. The university degree subject of Anthropology does show there are many cultures on this planet, including in Mexico, where the shamans are adamant about the existence of 'portals'. One famous Anthropologist who wrote extensively on this and wrote of his own experiences, is Carlos Castenada. Then there are the many former 'sacred sites' which are no longer presenting anything energetically special or different about them. If the planet changed after the 'misuse of technology in Atlantis', how can the original portals and 'tunnels' experienced at death possibly enable us to escape the planet?

In fact the lost story of this planet covers from legends of Camelot back to the days of Atlantis, the claimed misuse of the sophisticated technology followed by a worldwide Flood and a tilt to the Earth. Today Earth has an u nusual wobble and is slightly off its correct axis. The question must surely be asked, is this something to do with the dreadful secrets of an ancient civilization known to have done something terrible to this planet?

After this begins "saving" missions, even from the times of Pharaoh Akhenaten and to the time attributed to the Christ of 2000 years ago. Could the need for 'saving people' also be connected to the 'technological mistake' that happened in Atlantis?

After the 'misuse of technology' the ancient ones went to extensive lengths to measure the Earth and its new alignment to the stars. One of the times calculated as a time of trouble for the Earth is the Mayan calendar date of 2012. Some works have discovered that the Mayan calendars were actually charting the cycles of dangerous levels of solar flare activity, which translates into high levels of magnetic energies and even reversals of the Earth's Magnetosphere. Other records suggest that this is a date when the original portal links break into two separate destinies that can no longer be be reconciled. In fact even surviving data from Revelation in the Christian Bible, talks of 'two marks' and two destinies. If this is true, shouldn't we know about this? Aren't our own scientists capable of tracking and observing increased emf interaction from the sun, and are they not aware of the dangers?

*Please note, the Essene School does provide reactivated exercises which align with the lost 'Christic Portals'

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Earth-Escape Module 2.

This module is part of the Masters Level program. It reveals important details on the 'lost knowledge' of the structure of 'Creation Physics' i.e. how a galaxy or universe functions and why we are trapped on the Wheel of Rebirth. An ancient knowledge described a rip in the fabric of space-time that altered the Earth's spiritual realms and destiny forever. Our ancestors knew then, that future generations would require a 'spiritual practice' in order to cross the 'Dark Zone' or Void wasteland created by the rip, and 'escape'.

Complementary research through known ancient texts, beginning with the mystery of why the Roman Church felt it necessary to hide the existence of the people known as Essene/Essaiah, led to a trail to the Himalaya. Their rediscovered texts and many hidden and disguised teachings showed a teaching and Scientific Model of the universe that is not known to our current understanding of science or spiritual science. It became apparent that only a handful of Teachers had preserved knowledge of this ancient teaching.

Jhahan is the descendent of a Celtic lineage and began training with her grandmother, born in the 1880's and elderly by the time Jhahan was born. This lineage still maintained unusual violet or violet-blue eyes and chestnut hair, a longevity that encompassed several generations, and a rare connection to the purity of a spiritual presence that is now lost to this world. Many of the records to which Jhahan was introduced, show a highly detailed, never before recognised, scientific model of the universe and its complementary microcosmic counterpart as human anatomy.

The level of data presented over the courses of four modules, confidently reveals what has been missing from the knowledge of our spiritual journey.

We have the missing information and only those who are knowingly or inadvertently aiding the Deception will be angered by this.

Further questioning reveals information backed up by specialized university research, which in the terminology of 'spiritual science' answers how we as humans have failed to evolve the body's electrical system in the way it was intended to evolve. If we had known how to understand our existing ancient records better, we would have clearly seen how a regressive genetic error occurred, leading to a seeding still carrying the very sophisticated, 'reptile consciousness'. 'Reptile Consciousness' is so sophisticated, it may well epitomize what many have considered to be the very essence of 'spirituality'. Learn how to master and correct this very deceptive error.

Atlantis, Camelot, Himalayan Masters, 'Reptile Genetics', Pole Shift, and an explosive new view of the structure of the science behind our reality, left to us by our Ancient Elders

..............and being taught to those who want to know.

Earth-Escape follows on from Module 1 Override Mission.

It leads into advanced, Masters Level Training.

"Escape" is Module 2.